Category Archives: Services

6/1/21: BRIC: Composite Economic Indicators: 4Q 2020

Now, Composite PMIs:
  • Brazil Composite PMI rose from 51.6 in 3Q 2020 to 54.4 in 4Q 2020, marking second consecutive quarter of > 50.0 readings. Average 4 quarters PMI stands at 46.2, suggesting that Brazil's economy has not, yet, recovered fully from the Covid19 pandemic impact. Nonetheless, statistically, both 3Q and 4Q readings are signaling economic expansion and 4Q growth in Brazil's economy appears to be faster-paced than global (global composite PMI was at 53.3 in 4Q 2020).
  • Russia Composite PMI is in a contraction territory, with 4Q 2020 reading of 47.7, down from 55.9 in 3Q 2020. Over the course of 2020, Russia Composite PMI averaged 46.0, the second weakest in the BRICs group. At 47.7, 4Q 2020 PMI is exactly in line with 1Q 2020 PMI.
  • India Composite PMI rose from 45.9 in 3Q 2020 to 56.4 in 4Q 2020, signaling rapid bounce back in the economy, that, nonetheless continues to suffer from the pandemic-induced economic crisis. Full year 2020, Composite PMI average is at 44.3, by a distance, the lowest in the BRICs group. 
  • China Composite PMI rose from 54.7 in 3Q 2020 to 56.3 in 4Q 2020, marking third consecutive quarter of economic growth, with full year PMI averaging 51.4, suggesting that the Chinese economy has now recovered fully from the Covid19 pandemic impact. 

Overall, three out of four BRIC economies posted 4Q 2020 Composite PMI above Global Composite PMI: Brazil, India and China, with Russia being the only BRIC economy posting both sub-Global and sub-50 Composite PMI reading at the end of 2020. Only one BRIC economy has, so far, signaled full recovery from the Covid19 crisis shock: China, with all other BRICs still recovering from the pandemic.

Given that both BRIC Manufacturing Sector Activity Index (54.9 in 4Q 2020) and BRIC Services Sector Activity Index (54.8 in 4Q 2020) are above Global Manufacturing (53.5) and Services (52.3) PMIs, BRIC economies as a group have supported global economic growth to the upside in 4Q 2020. In contrast, BRIC Manufacturing Activity Index outperformed Global Manufacturing PMI in 3Q 2020 (53.0 to 51.6), while BRIC Services Activity Index (51.0) underperformed Global Services PMI (51.4). 

6/1/21: BRIC: Services PMIs: 4Q 2020


BRIC's manufacturing PMIs for 4Q 2020 were covered here: Now, to Services PMIs:

  • Brazil Services PMI rose from 47.5 in 3Q 2020 to 51.4 in 4Q 2020, with aggregate 2020 levels of activity still significantly below 2019 levels. At 51.4, the index is barely statistically above 50.0 (95% confidence bound is 51.3). However, the latest quarterly reading is the first nominally above 50.0 after three consecutive quarters of sub-50 readings. 
  • Russia Services PMI crashed in 4Q 2020 from 56.8 in 3Q to 47.7. Statistically, Russian services sector is contracting and it is contracting rapidly. In the entire 2020, there were three quarters of deeply sub-50 readings against one quarter of above 50.0 expansion. Services sector reading is basically identical to 47.6 recorded in Manufacturing sector, which means that in 4Q 2020 there was no 'comfort zone' in the Russian economy in terms of growth.
  • India Services PMI rose significantly in 4Q 2020 compared to 3Q 2020, from 41.9 to 53.4.  However, this growth is unlikely to bring India's services activity anywhere near pre-Covid19 levels. 
  • China Services PMI rose for the third consecutive quarter in 4Q 2020. In 2Q 2020, China's Services PMI was at 52.6, which increased to 54.3 in 3Q 2020 and to 57.0 in 4Q 2020. Nonetheless, it is still doubtful that Chinese services activities have fully recovered from the pandemic as of the end of 2020.
  • Overall, BRIC Services Activity Index based on PMIs and respective GDP shares in the global economy rose for the second quarter in a row from 51.0 in 3Q 2020 to 54.8 in 4Q 2020. This marks some recovery from the Covid19 pandemic impact, although this recovery remains incomplete. BRICs have - as a group - outperformed Global Services PMI which rose from 51.4 in 3Q 2020 to 52.3 in 4Q 2020.

7/11/20: BRIC: Composite Economic Indicators for October

 I covered BRIC Manufacturing and Services PMIs for October in two earlier posts (see here, so now, Composite PMIs:

  • Brazil Composite PMI rose to 55.9 in October, compared to 51.6 in 3Q 2020, and currently sits above Global Composite PMI of 53.3. The latest increase in PMI is a robust signal of partial recovery, marking the third consecutive month of > 50.0 readings that followed five consecutive months of contraction. 
  • Russia Composite PMI was the weakest of all BRIC PMIs, falling to 47.1 in October, compared to 55.9 in 3Q 2020, and marking the first sub-50 reading in four months.
  • India Composite PMI was the strongest amongst the BRIC PMIs rising to 58.0 in October against 45.9 in 3Q 2020. Overall, Indian economy is only starting to inch out of the recession that was marked by two consecutive quarters of sharply contractionary PMIs.
  • China Composite PMI posted an increase to 55.7 in October relative to 54.7 in 3Q 2020, marking the start of the third quarter of growth. Overall, the latest reading indicates that Chinese economy has completed its recovery from 1Q 2020 recession.
Overall, BRIC Manufacturing indicator (55.2 in October, compared to 53.0 in 3Q 2020) and Services indicator (54.9 in October, compared to 51.0 in 3Q 2020) have posted better performance than their Global counterparts (53.0 and 52.9, respectively for October). BRIC Manufacturing indicator is now outperforming Global Manufacturing PMI in 8th consecutive quarters, and BRIC Services indicators is running above Global Services PMI for the first time after posting poorer performance in 3Q 2020.

5/11/20: BRIC: Services PMIs October

In the earlier post, I covered BRIC economies manufacturing PMIs for October: Now, leet's take a look at Services PMI.

As the chart above illustrates:
  • Brazil Services PMI rose from 47.5 in 3Q 2020 to 52.3 in October. Prior to October, Brazil's services sector was in a contractionary territory for three consecutive quarters. October marks the second month of above 50.0 readings, although statistically-speaking, September reading was indistinguishable from 50.0 stagnation / zero growth level.
  • Russian Services PMI posted a sharp contraction, falling from 56.8 in 3Q 2020 to 46.9 in October. Russia enjoyed just three months of > 50.0 readings in July-September 2020, implying that the economy is nowhere near a V-shaped recovery from the pandemic and that things are getting worse, not better in the services sectors. Even worse dynamics apply to Manufacturing where Russia has not seen sustained > 50 readings since March 2019.
  • India Services PMI rose to 54.1 in October, marking the first month of above 50.0 readings since February 2020. Given cumulative nature of the PMIs, October rebound is nowhere near being sizeable enough to start closing the pandemic-induced drop-off in economic activity. India's services have now posted seven months of contraction in 2020, compared to four months for Manufacturing. October marks the first month since February with both indices above 50.0.
  • Chinese Services PMI rose to 56.8 in October, compared to 54.8 in September, marking 6th consecutive month of both Manufacturing and Services PMIs above 50.0 line. 
Overall, BRIC Services Activity Index (a measure of Services sectors activity calculated by me based on monthly Markit PMI data and country-specific share of the world GDP, PPP-adjusted) rose to 54.9 in October compared to 51.0 in 3Q 2020, marking a second month of > 50.0 readings and accelerating growth momentum. October BRIC reading is in excess of the Global Services PMI reading of 52.9, implying that as a group, BRIC economies are contributing positively to global economic growth momentum, although both Brazil and Russia are pushing BRIC reading down, compared to Global Services PMI.

14/10/20: BRIC: Composite economic activity indicators Q3 results


We covered in detail strong recovery in BRIC Manufacturing PMIs ( and fragile recovery in Services PMIs ( Here is a summary chart:

Now, let's take a look at BRIC Composite PMIs for 3Q 2020:

Brazil Composite PMI ended Q3 2020 on a reading of 51.6 - an improvement on 31.8 in 2Q 2020. Brazil's Composite PMIs have run sub-50 recessionary reading in 1Q and 2Q 2020, returning to growth in 3Q 2020, albeit at the levels not consistent with a V-shaped recovery.

Russia Composite PMI stood at a strong 55.9 reading in 3Q 2020, up on 32.6 in 2Q 2020 and signaling an end to 2 consecutive quarters of sub-50 readings. This marks the fastest pace of growth since 1Q 2017, but is also consistent with the levels of current activity being still below pre-COVID19 pandemic period. 

India Composite PMI remained in recessionary territory in 3Q 2020 at 45.9, an improvement on 19.9 in 2Q 2020. Overall, Indian economy has suffered the sharpest hit from the pandemic, compared to all other BRICs. It is continuing to exhibit recessionary dynamics to-date. 

China Composite PMI ended 3Q 2020 at 54.7, marking the second consecutive quarter of recover (2Q 2020 reading was 52.6). 3Q 2020 reading is the highest since 1Q 2020, and suggests that the Chinese economy is getting close to recovery in its activity levels to pre-pandemic position. 

Overall, BRIC block activity indices imply lagging momentum in the recovery in services, and faster than global pace of recovery in manufacturing. Statistically, BRIC growth momentum in 3Q 2020 is within historical average, however, growth dynamics in 1Q and 2Q 2020 were significantly below historical averages, which implies that 3Q 2020 PMIs indicate incomplete or only partial recovery in the BRIC economies post-pandemic so far.