Category Archives: BRIC PMIs

9/8/18: BRIC PMIs trace Global economy’s slowdown at the start of 3Q


Recent PMIs for BRIC show a weaker start to 3Q 2018, in line with moderating growth outlook for the global economy:

In summary, Composite PMIs for July show Russia, China and Brazil underperforming global composite index, with India being the only BRIC economy trending in line with the global economy.  Much of this dynamic was down to Manufacturing sector, with Services supporting global economy to the upside:


The biggest downside momentum came from Russia's sub-50 reading in Manufacturing, followed by significant decline in growth activity in the sector in Brazil, and a more moderate slowdown in China:

For Russia, weaknesses in Manufacturing sector, for now offset by strengths in Services, are unpleasant reminders that the economy is still fundamentally on near-zero growth path, despite early 2018 hopes for 1.9-2 percent growth projections. For China, there are growing signs of the adverse impact of Trade War with the U.S. taking their toll on growth and cost dynamics.

3/8/17: BRIC Manufacturing PMIs: July


BRIC PMIs for July 2017 are out, so here are the headline numbers and some analysis. 

Top level summary of monthly readings for BRIC Manufacturing PMIs is provided in the Table below:


Of interest here are:
  • Changes in Brazil Manufacturing PMI signalled weakening in the economy in June that was sustained into July. Manufacturing PMI for Brazil has now fallen from 52.0 in May to 50.5 in June and to 50.0 in July. This suggests that any recovery momentum was short lived. 
  • Russian Manufacturing PMI, meanwhile, powered up to 52.7 in July from 50.3 in June, rising to the highest level in 6 months. Good news: Russian manufacturing sector has now posted above-50 nominal readings in 12 consecutive months. Less bright news: Russian Manufacturing PMIs have signalled weak rate of recovery in 5 months to July and July reading was not quite as impressive as for the period of November 2016 - January 2017. Nonetheless, if confirmed in August-September, slight acceleration in Manufacturing sector can provide upward support for the economy in 3Q 2017, support that will be critical as to whether the economy will meet Government expectations for ~2% full year economic expansion.
  • Chinese manufacturing PMI gained slightly in July (51.1) compared to weak May (49.6) and June (504.), but growth remains weak. Last time Chinese Manufacturing posted PMI statistically above 50.0 (zero growth) marker was January 2013. This flies in the face of official growth figures coming from China.
  • India’s Manufacturing PMI fell off the cliff in July (47.9) compered to already weak growth recorded in June (50.9). Over the last 3 months, India’s Manufacturing sector has gone from weak growth, to statistically zero growth to an outright contraction.


Overall, GDP-weighted BRIC Manufacturing PMI stood at extremely weak 50.4 in July 2017, down from equally weak 50.6 in 2Q 2017. In both periods, BRIC Manufacturing sector grossly underperformed Global Manufacturing PMI dynamics (52.7 in July and 52.6 in 2Q 2017). Russia is the only country in the BRIC group with Manufacturing PMI matching Global Manufacturing PMI performance in July. Russian Manufacturing PMI was below Global Manufacturing PMI in 2Q 2017.

Net outrun: BRIC Manufacturing sector currently acts as a drag on global manufacturing growth, with both India and Brazil providing momentum to the downside for the BRIC Manufacturing PMIs.




10/4/17: BRIC Composite PMIs 1Q 17: Not Keeping Up With Global Growth


In two previous posts, I have covered the 1Q 2017 data for Manufacturing PMIs and Services PMIs for BRIC economies. Both indicators provided little hope that world's largest emerging economies are generating a positive growth momentum consistent with stronger global economic growth.

The same is confirmed by the Composite PMIs:

Brazil's 1Q 2017 Composite PMI came in at 46.7, up on 46.1 in 4Q 2016, but still below the stagnation line. In simple terms, Brazil's Composite PMIs have now signalled negative growth for 12 consecutive quarters. Improved 1Q 2017 reading is consistent with continued and strong contraction in the economy, albeit a contraction that is less pronounced than in previous quarters.

Russia's Composite PMI posted a reading of 56.7, marking the strongest growth performance for the economy since 4Q 2006. Predictably, given both Manufacturing and Services PMIs as discussed in above-linked posts, Russian economy has outperformed in 1Q 2017 global economic growth momentum and is currently the strongest BRIC economy for the fourth consecutive quarter.

India's Composite PMI came in at 50.8, up marginally on 50.7 in 4Q 2016. This marks the second consecutive quarter of Composite PMI readings for India that are statistically indistinguishable from the stagnation line of 50.0. There is little good news in the data from India, where the fallout from the disastrous de-monetisation campaign by the government has been taking its toll.

Chinese Composite PMI stood at 52.3 in 1Q 2017, down from 53.1, but still the second highest since 1Q 2013. In simple terms, this means that the Chinese economic growth is not accelerating off 4Q 2016 dynamics, suggesting that the economy has now exhausted any momentum gained on foot of a massive credit bubble expansion in modern history.

Chart below illustrates the dynamics:


As shown above, Russia is the only BRIC economy currently generating upward supports for global growth.

When we consider individual sectoral indices, as shown in the chart below, BRIC Manufacturing sector is now pushing global growth momentum down, while BRIC Services sector is co-moving with the global growth, but provides no positive momentum to global economic expansion:

Finally, using monthly data (100=zero growth) for the BRIC economies index of economic activity (computed by me based on Markit and IMF data), the chart below shows just to what extent does Russian growth momentum dominates rest of the BRIC economies dynamics:


In summary, BRIC economies remain negative contributors to the global economic growth, with BRIC economies posting overall positive, but weak growth across the two key sectors.

10/4/17: BRIC Services PMI 1Q 2017: Another Weak Quarter


Yesterday, in my analysis of BRIC Manufacturing PMIs for 1Q 2017, I showed that 51.1 for 1Q 2017, BRIC Manufacturing PMI average came down marginally on 51.2 in 4Q 2016, although up on 49.2 reading for 1Q 2016. Russia was the only economy posting Q1 2017 Manufacturing activity in line with Global Manufacturing dynamics and BRIC as a group were exerting downward pressure on global manufacturing sector.

The news, therefore, were not great for the global manufacturing economy (stalled growth momentum in 1Q 2017), and for the BRIC economies.

Looking at Services PMIs next:

Brazil's Services PMI for 1Q 2017 averaged at 46.4, which is somewhat better than 44.5 average for 3Q 2016 and 4Q 2016 and stronger than 40.0 average for 1Q 2016. In simple terms, Brazil's Services activity continued to shrink and shrink rapidly in 1Q 2017, although the rate of contraction moderated. All in, Brazil's Services PMIs have now been in sub-50 territory for 10 consecutive quarters, two quarters shorter than Brazil's Manufacturing sector. The long-running and deep recession in Latin America's largest economy is continuing, although there are some very fragile signs that it might come to an end in the foreseeable future, as both Manufacturing PMI (at 49.6 in March) and Services PMI (at 47.7 in March) are showing signs of recovery.

Russia Services PMI for 1Q 2017 came in at a blistering pace of 56.8, up on already significant growth in 4Q 2016 at 54.6 and significantly above 1Q 2016 reading of 50.0. All in, this is the fourth consecutive quarter of Services PMIs above 50.0, with all four quarters reading statistically significant for positive growth. Russia is leading BRIC contribution to global growth in both Manufacturing and Services sectors, judging by PMIs.

Indian Services PMI was at 50.2 in 1Q 2017, which not statistically distinct from zero growth marker of 50.0, but up on 49.3 in 4Q 2016. In 1Q 2016 the Services PMI averaged 53.6 which was positive for growth. Indian economy has been hitting some trouble waters for the last two quarters, something I remarked upon in the post covering Manufacturing PMIs linked above. While Services are showing signs of stabilisation, the recovery is not yet evident in the data and is lagging Manufacturing sector performance.

China's Services PMI reading in 1Q 2017 disappointed those who hoped that 2016 credit explosion would set stage for a robust economic growth recovery. With Manufacturing PMI growth signal stuck at the same level in 1Q 2017 as in 4Q 2016, Services PMI reading for 1Q 2017 was actually below the 4Q 2016 reading (52.6 vs 53.0). Given that the index never once slipped below 50 in the history of the series, as well as given the moments of the underlying distribution, 52.6 reading is statistically indistinguishable from zero growth conditions. Thus, although posting the second strongest, amongst the BRIC economies, PMI reading for 1Q 2017 after Russia, Chinese Services sector was a relative negative for global growth momentum.

Chart and table below summarise some of the dynamics discussed earlier:



In summary, as shown above, global PMIs are supported to the upside only by Russian Services PMI dynamics, with Chinese Services PMIs providing virtually no momentum to global Growth, and both India and Brazil contributing negatively. Overall, thus, BRIC economies remain weak and under-perform global growth.

8/2/17: BRIC Composite PMIs: Russia Sustains Growth Momentum in January


Having covered January PMIs for BRIC economies for manufacturing sector (http://trueeconomics.blogspot.com/2017/02/2217-bric-manufacturing-pmis-russia.html) and for services sector (http://trueeconomics.blogspot.com/2017/02/2217-bric-manufacturing-pmis-russia.html), let’s update data for Composite PMI indicator.


Overall, only one BRIC economy - Russia - provided solid support to global growth in January, with China providing a slight downward momentum and India and Brazil leading to a significant downside momentum.

Brazil’s Composite PMI continued to signal severe contraction at 44.7 in January, tanking deeper into a recessionary territory compared to December 2016 reading of 45.2. This makes 23rd consecutive month of contraction. Brazil registered recessionary PMIs in both Services and Manufacturing and in both sectors, January readings were no better than December. In simple terms, there is no light in the end of Brazil’s recessionary tunnel, yet.

Russia Composite PMI posted a robust upward improvement, rising from an already fast-paced 56.6 in December 2016 to 58.3 in January 2017, marking 12th consecutive month of above 50 readings and the highest Composite PMI level on record. Impressively, both Services and Manufacturing sectors PMIs rose in January, compared to December.

Chinese Composite PMI posted a significant slowdown in growth from 53.5 in December 2016 to 52.2 in January. Still, the index remains above 50 mark for 11th month in a row. Chinese Manufacturing PMI declined substantially in January, while Services posted a very modest drop. Importantly, Chinese Manufacturing PMI has now dropped below statistically significant above-50 reading, after just one month at the level close enough to being almost statistically significant.

Third month of sub-50 readings in Services PMI and anaemic 50.4 reading in manufacturing meant that India’s Composite PMI remained below 50.0 marker for the third consecutive month, posting 49.4 in January compared to 47.6 in December. Despite index improvement (signalling slower rate of economic activity contraction), Indian economy remains in recessionary dynamics, courtesy of the completely botched self-inflicted policy mayhem - the misguided demonetisation.

Table below summarises the most recent movements in Composite PMIs

Chart below shows Composite PMIs for BRICs (quarterly basis) against the Global Composite PMI, showing that the current global growth trend is still being supported by the BRICs, with primary positive impact coming from Russian figures.


The following chart summaries the sheer magnitude of Russian growth momentum compared to BRICs-ex-Russia:



However, the good news is that despite slippage in India and extreme weakness in Brazil, overall BRIC’s contribution to global growth continues to trend upward, albeit with some significant moderation since mid-4Q 2016: